Sunday, July 2, 2017

Care for My Aging Parents

Over 30 years ago when my brother wanted to come to the USA for graduate study, my father stopped him from coming.  My father wrote me a letter and also told my brother that he needed to stay in China. Since then my parents have been trying very hard to get my brother married, one girl waited for him for over 3 years and my parents had already treated her as their daughter in law, but still they failed.  He is still single today. He has been assigned to many places for work except for his hometown where he could stay with my parents. My parents wait for him to come home for a few days short stay, then they wait for the next time; they love to feed him, make his bed, and do his laundry. My brother has always been very quiet; still the biggest pain for my father was since he is his only son that he did give him any grandson.  They also worry about who is going to take care of my brother when they are not around any longer. My parents lived among their coworkers all their life; they know each of their neighbors. My brother has always lived with my parents whenever he came home; his own place has been empty since he brought it over 30 years ago.
     My parents came to the US  in the 90s when my youngest son was 2.5 years old and they helped me restart my career.  I have been working full time ever since. When they returned to China without coming back, I was worried.  I kept calling them to come back, they could stay with me, or with my sister but they prefer to stay in their own home, waiting for my brother to come home.  I did raise the question who would take care of them when they need help, they told me they will hire a helper. The only thing I could do was call them on the phone regularly to check on them, and skype when my brother or sister is around.  It has been more and more difficult for them to take care of themselves in recent years. My sister and her kids have tried to stay with them every summer and my brother tries to come home every other weekend.
     My brother asked his company to move him back to his hometown so he could take care of his aging parents. Just he has not received any notice yet. My father told him not to be picky since all the good positions might already been filled. I felt for my poor brother, over 50, he was asking his company to move him back to take care of our aging parents. I was more worried he might lose his job and his job seemed to be the most important thing in his life. To my surprise, his company actually considered his request, and is working on it for him.
     My father is 84 and has a lot more problems health-wise; he has a good mind but not good hands and feet.  He could not even button his clothes on a bad day. My mom is 86 and is in good health except for high blood pressure.  She does not believe in real doctors but instead falls for the salesmen who have sold her health pills ever since they left the US.  She spent not only all her monthly pension and savings, plus my father's.  My father thought he had more pension than my mom and my mom has a big family in Sichuan.  He put his money into her bank account, but he kept all of their saving books.  One day, he noticed that my mom's saving books were gone, then her CDs. He asked my mom, and my mom said it was her money. Very soon, she spent it all.  No one knows where all that money went.
     My mom's blood pressures has never been under control, she only takes her blood pressure pills when she really is not feeling good and her blood pressure is high, sometimes 190. Every time I talk to my mom, she will read to me from the newsletters or books about all the health pills she bought; they cure and prevent everything. In the beginning, she had trouble to read, sometimes I had to wait a minute or two, sometimes she almost gave it up.  Then she picked it up again, read much better and more fluent. She could read an hour at a time, I just listen.
     When she is not home, I talked to my father, he complained about my mom. Phone calls are all hers. Sometimes she is gone before he even gets up in the morning.  She never tells him where she was going, or when she is coming home. When he cooks her lunch she failed to come home, when he did not cook her lunch, she shows up for lunch. I asked my mom to leave a note for my father, but she never listens to me. I asked my father to ask my mom to pay her share of the expenses; my father said it would make him look bad so he did not want to do that.
     Two years ago, my mom asked her 88 years old brother in Zigong to come to Chengdu to check his eyes; her brother took a 3-hours bus trip to come to my city. The diagnosis was the same, he had cataracts. On the way back, my father told me that he was carrying all the goodies bags that my mom packed for her brother. My mom held her brother's hand, walking ahead of him. He felt like he was a bag carrier. To make sure her brother could arrive at his city safely. he bought two tickets, accompanied him back to his city and back the same day. He came back around 9 PM, exhausted and hungry.  My mom did not leave him any food so he was upset, my mom said he should have eaten a long time ago since it was way past dinner time.  My father ended up eating instant noodles instead. Still my father would never complain when my mom was around.
     My sister and her kids went back to visit them more in the summers, and returned to the US by the end of August for school. Early September last year, right after they came back from China, a close friend of ours called her and told her what she saw about my mom. She said that on a 90-degrees hot day, my mom was outside the gate waiting for her delivery for over 1 hour. When she received it, the box was broken, and it was a magnet bracelet. She saw the price and was so shocked that she called the police. She showed my mom on the computer, it worth a few yuan to 300 yuan at the most, but my mom paid over 3000 yuan. The policeman did show up but could not do anything about it.
     We have treated this friend as a family member, her husband was matched by my mom many years ago. My parents treated their daughter as their own granddaughter. My brother also showered her with many gifts. Anything good we have, always give them some. Her husband was good as a nature healer, only without license but it is FREE, he prescribed countless herb remedies and acupuncture for my parents. They have been a great help for my parents.
     My sister decided to go back to China again, I told her no since she just got back with her kids. She had not done a thing all those years about my mom's buying and spending. No one could stop her, after all it is her money.  My dad told my sister no, not to go back. She did not listen, she flew back again. My father's hands and feet have been numb for about a year, he tried everything from massages, acupuncture and some medicine but not getting better, and getting worse. His hands and feet started to get swollen and hurt.  Since my sister is back again, my father checked himself into our best hospital in the city. Huaxi Hospital, ranked 2nd for seven consecutive years, consists of 4300 beds, 36 clinical departments, and 15 medical practice departments. Over 6000 people work here, including 550 doctors and associate professors. More than 30 programs have been started through cooperation with the USA, Canada, Denmark, Japan, and Sweden.
    My sister took my mom's cell phone away, changed our home number and followed her everywhere.  My mom would not talk to her and me since my sister was back.  She also refused to take the new blood pressure pills my sister picked up for her after seeing the doctor near the gate in the Oil Company Hospital. Why? because she read all the papers along with the pills, which include side affects and warnings. All the health pills she bought from the direct marketing people never listed anything bad, only good. She was not used to reading bad news. My sister agreed with her so she cooked herb remedies from our friend who was a natural healer, so her blood pressure was high again. My father was in the hospital told us that she would take blood pressure pill when she does not feel good, of course, my father kept all papers so she never read about the side affects or warnings.
     My father made an appointment for my mom since he was in the hospital but my mom refused to go. I ended up Skype with my sister asking her to pointing the camera towards my mom, she looked awful and confused as if her sky was falling.  I called her and she would not even acknowledge me. My sister and I started crying, I told her to go to the hospital to find my father.  My father was looking for her.  I even tried to ask my sister to find those sale's people out there since they seems to make my mom happy. My sister said she did not know any of them, no one approached my mom since she came home. I could see my mom crashing down fast, she was used to people out there treated her like a queen, but emptied all her bank accounts. While we did not know what to do, my sister said my mom was packing things for our dad.  She was going to the hospital.  The doctor prescribed her 2 kinds of pills to lower her blood pressure, one from Germany, slow release. I could tell the improvement every week Skype with my sister, still my mom refused to talk to me as if it was all my fault. She was also complaining I talk to my sister too much, wasting money.
     One morning I could see my sister was eating her breakfast, my mom was sitting next to her eating as well.  All of the sudden my mom standing up and walk away from the table leaving her unfinished breakfast.  My sister tried to stop her, she said " I need to get your brother's egg ready, he is getting up".  My sister said "he is not up yet, finish your breakfast first, it will get cold." My mom would not listen so my sister stopped her breakfast as well, following my mom to get my brother's egg ready. When they just about finish, I could hear my brother's door opened, he was up. My sister and I was amazed that my mom's mind was so clear when it was about my brother. To my parents, my brother has always been the most important person as long as I could remembered, it never changed.  My sister and I are used to this.
    I decided to go back to visit China by the end of the year with 2 tasks, one was to get a home aide for my parents, the second was to get my sister back to the USA as her husband requested, to help her two kids, one freshman in high school and one freshman in middle school.  My sister's husband had high hopes on me since I was the oldest.  He told me that he was not in the position to tell my sister to come home since she was taking care of her parents.  I told him that I would try but not get his hopes up since I had no power over them. Very soon it proves that I was right.
     My brother picked me up at the airport at midnight, he even gave up his bedroom for me. My father got up and greeted me and gave me a big hug, so hard and so long. My mom did not get up. My brother slept in a little bed next to my dad's full size bed over night, then left the next day.  I could not sleep at night since it was day time in America. The next day, my mom showed me the Chinese Newspaper report about American gun violence, how many people died a year.  I told her I know but it only happens in bad neighborhoods, asking her to not worry.  She then showed me the bad news about Trump, I told her do not worry, the American president does not have that much power. He has only 4 years, my father said that is why we call them leaders 领袖 in Chinese ( which means collar and sleeve), it is easy to get dirty. My mom's face became bitter, her smiles were gone.  She kept to herself most of the time, I could not get close to her.  She is little better with my sister, my sister said it was her few months of hard work.  She also showed her all the bad news from Taiwan. With her ways, she worried about her two daughters away from home.
     After lunch I went to bed. Around 3 pm, my dad opened my door and woke me up, I really did not want to get up. He said if I kept sleeping I would not be able to sleep at night. He wanted me to go out with him to get some steam buns for tomorrow's breakfast. Down stairs, every step of the way, we met someone.  I do not know them, my father would proudly tell them I was his oldest daughter. We ended up sitting down at a pavilion in the garden.  One old lady I knew, she was one of my childhood girlfriend's mom in the courtyard.  Mrs Zhang, her husband has left her for some years.  She was so happy to see me, she held my hands sitting next to me. Taking me away from the rest of the old ladies who also wanted talk to me.  She still remembered me as a role model for all other kids when I was in the courtyard. I used to help cooking, hand washing all family laundry... She told me she has a companion living with her now, suggested that my parents also needed one. I agreed with her, she then said she knew one.  My father got the phone number and told her he would consider her. 20 minute trip took us over 2 hours.  It was dinner time when we got back home.
     My sister knew where to get the best things. We went to outdoor markets for fresh vegetables, tofu daily after their Buddhist morning prayers and after my cleaning pots and pans in the kitchen. She rarely bought meat since she is a vegan, but would buy cooked meats for us sometimes. Each trip, she would buy some dog food for the homeless dogs. On the way back, she would scatter some here and there. She told me that she was not the only one feeding them, she saw other people leaving dog food out.  Even the vendors who sell food in the markets, they also fed homeless dogs.  I did notice some dirty dogs around, not sure if they are homeless.  She said they are, otherwise they are clean and have their owners nearby. She also told me that there are a lot of homeless cats, she think they should be able to find rats around.  I was shocked to know there are so many homeless dogs around. I thought that Chinese people eat dogs and cats, so why are there so many? I know American SPCA also rescues pets off the streets, encourage citizens to adopt them.  For the ones no one wants, death by injection. I was shocked to see so many homeless dogs in my neighborhood and so many people feed them. I am more worried about rabies. Each year, ASPCA, approximately 1.5 million shelter animals are euthanized (670,000 dogs and 860,000 cats).
Skinny Chinese Santa Claus
     My father was trying to tell me his problems on the phone before I got back to China. I told him to wait until I come; he  showed me his reports from Huaxi medical. Listed 9 problems, plus the list of the medicines he took.  I took a photo and sent it to Mr Wu who is a retired pharmacist. They were my parents friends when they lived with me in the USA.  His wife took care of my youngest son after my parents went back to China. Their daughters are living faraway from them and I am close by so I take them shopping whenever they need. They treated me like one of their daughters only without emotional attachment. Mr Wu replied right away, he was concerned about that many pills my father took.  So he suggested after my father finished this prescription, he should go back to his doctor to see if some symptoms have gotten better so maybe some of the pills could be stopped. I thought it was a good idea since my father already refilled everything once.  In China, all the prescription drugs are for sale in any drug store as long as you know what you need.  You do not need a prescription to buy any prescription drug. My father was not happy to hear what Mr Wu had to say, he said he was not a doctor, only following the doctor's order. You too, only study trees, know nothing about medicine. I told him I could accompany him back to the Huaxi to see his doctor.  He said his doctor told him he could refill his medicine and he did not want to go to see doctor.
     For the next few days, my father talked to me a lot but not my mother, she seemed to be estranged with me, not like me talk or doing anything.  She seemed to not know me at all, she was with my sister.  My father said my mom would not say hi back to their colleagues anymore, she tried to avoid them all.  Might have been she was trying to convince others to buy those health pills, she even tried to give them away when she learned a colleague was dying in the hospital. Of course, she received rejections.  She truly believed those pills could save them.  My sister said once they went to the bank to cash her monthly pension, she pays everything with cash like most Chinese.  The young teller was coughing, she insisted to bring him a box of health pills for free (cost her 700 yuan) the next day.  The young teller literally ran away from her and told her he was better now.  The direct sale in China is illegal, but they are everywhere preying on the seniors. They have newsletters, books and my mom treats them like a bible and she believes that the pills she brought from them are all good, nothing bad. Her blood pressure pills from the real hospital include side effects and warnings that she believes could all happen to her.
     As for a care giver, my father was thinking about her younger sister's baby son, who had a son then a daughter before China allowed a second child. He was fined 10,000 yuan to have the daughter, every time the collector came to collect money, he said he had no money, could not even afford to raise this daughter, so his daughter was free to take. He even prepared the extra clothes and diapers for the collector.  The collector left unhappy each time.  Soon the government police changed, his daughter became legal and no more fines.  She just turned 3 years old and her parents were happy to have her over their 18 years old teenage son.  My father was thinking about this girl's mom, since her husband had gone out working as a migrant worker all over China, never was home anyway.  Her older son turned 18 and was out working as a migrant worker as well, she and her 3 year old could come to take care of my parents.  My father also thought about my brother, he was thinking about adopting a girl from the northern farm for my brother, at least two of his cousins adopted abandoned girls, two of them were grown up and married with kids already.  He was thinking the same mother could take care of her 3 years old and my brother's adopted daughter together so my brother would not be alone when he is old, he would have a descendant.  Of course, my brother had to agree on this.
    I told my father this adopted baby would not work. The adopted girl will certainly following the 3 years old calling her mom.  When they leave, the girl will follow her mom as well.  She will love the care giver more than my brother.  Not to mention China still a very traditional family center. My brother needs to have a family first before adopting any kid.  Not to mention with two kids, how was she going to take care of my parents, not to mention any medical bills since they are not city residents without any insurance. He thought about this for a day, my mom completely rejected the whole idea.
    I was also planning to go to Zigong by myself to see my uncle, where I spent the first 9 years of my life with my grandma.  A day before my trip, one of my father's cousin and his 36 year old son was coming the next day.  My sister and my father thought I should take my mom with me since she does not like northern farmers. 8 AM the next morning, the father and son came and it was the first time for all of us see his 36 years old son, my father only met his father since his son was out as a migrant worker; it was the first time for my sister and I to see both of them. After lunch, my father suggested that my mom, my sister and I all go to Zigong to my uncle's. All three of their northerners could enjoy themselves. Our cousins told us again and again they would take good care of my father.
     We arrived Zigong around 5:30 PM. Our uncle already booked the Bean Spout Hot Pot restaurant, one of my cousins took my mom, my uncle an me in her car, but we went to the wrong Bean Spout Hot Pot, only one word difference. She was trying to call my 88 year old aunt but she left her cell phone at home.  She tried to call my uncle's home aide who was with my aunt, his phone was turned off.  My sister had my mom's cell phone but I do not remember the number. We asked around and found out there was another Bean Sprout Hot Pot down the street. Since it was so difficult to find a parking space, we decided to walk down and leave the car parked where it was. I was holding my 90 year uncle's arm slowing walking down the street while my cousin ran ahead to make sure it was the right hot pot ahead. Suddenly, my mom pushed me away from my uncle, she wanted to held my uncle's arm. So my 86 year mom held her 90 year old brother step by step walking down the street. It took them more than half hour to finally reach the right hot pot. After dinner, my uncle was really tried, he could not left his feet up to my cousin's SUV. It took their home aide a great effort to push him into his seat since he was a big man.
     My sister got up at 5:30 AM next morning as usual, she had been getting up at 5:30 AM every morning to cook rice porridge for my parents. My parents have a programmable rice cooker she could set it up the night before, but she wanted to cook the rice porridge the old fashion way. My father gets up around 6:30 AM and goes out to exercise. My mom would get up around the same time, she opened windows for fresh air.  My sister closes windows after her, she yells "the heat is on, Mom".  My mom never listens to her. To make my father happy, I did cook one morning when I could not sleep at 3 AM. I used oatmeal with chopped apple, walnuts and cinnamon.
     Their home aide arrived at 7 AM and felt uneasy since he suppose to cook.  My aunt said my sister's porridge was not as good so she should stop cooking.  Their aide works from 7 AM to 7 PM for 7 days, and covers 3 meals plus all cleanings. He was a cousin on my 88 year old aunt's side, and was hired a year after my aunt broke her hip. She and my uncle were going out but my uncle's big feet tripped her. Her surgery was very successful now she could walk again. We called their aide 'old brother' and went with him to the farmer's market daily shopping, also to buy things we liked.  On the way there, my sister noticed this family massage place. They were all blind or partially blind.  She wanted to feel and learn from different massages.  I have never paid anyone for massage, only my sister worked on me whenever I see her.  350 yuan for 12 times, so 3 of us could have 4 massages. My sister felt like she was on vacation, she enjoyed free time here.
     The next day my father called, wanted one of us back home. His cousins want to go back home. We were shocked since they just came to see my father a day before. My mother said my sister should go back so she only enjoyed one massage which was a huge disappointment.  The older brother and I tried to finish the rest of the massage every day. One day, he decided to have his shoes polished by a lady sitting on the sidewalk. He looked very proud and really enjoyed the service. I noticed his shoe inserts; they were hand-embroiled so beautifully that I thought it was a waste to step on them. He said his wife made them when she had nothing to do at home. Nothing to do? She works in a restaurant daily till midnight and he takes a bus to pick her up every night for her safety.
Hand-embroiled shoe inserts
     After my sister left, I asked my mom if she wanted me to move into her room since I was in my aunt's room and I know both have a life long rivalry. She did not like it when we talked as if we talked about her, I could move into her room but she said No, so I continue stayed with my aunt in her room.  It is very common in China that a couple sleep in their own room after the kids are gone. Still my aunt checked my uncle every night, he wet his pants every now and then.  She will have to help him change. My uncle refused to wear diapers since it was not comfortable, so the aide would do laundry almost every day or every other day.
     My 90 years old uncle did slow down a lot.  But he still tried to keep his routine every day, each night, he soaked the soy beans, red and black beans, plus goji berries. The next morning, first he listened to the radio for the weather, he has a note book to record daily temperature high and low, then he compared them the same day different years. He then exercised by following the radio music which reminded me when I was in College.  The same music only I do not remember most movements. I watch him and noticed that he did not remember much either. Sadly he forgot to do this every day. He then put all soaked beans into the soy milk machine making thick chowder like soup.  He wanted all of us to have a bowl of that before a bowl of rice porridge, a hard boiled egg plus a steam bun. Honestly that I could not finish all what he ate, I have not eaten hard boiled eggs for years.  So I had two bowls plus half steam buns we bought the night before, they also ate a lot more fatty meats.  They have a little high cholesterol but their blood pressure was fine and they do not take any pills.
     The next thing my uncle would do daily was checking the daily newspaper, he will have to change his shoes, then take his cane to go down stairs to the mail box. The cement stairs are very steep with at least 20 steps.  He would check 3-4 times since 10 AM, but the papers do not come till around 1 PM.  He had 2 kinds of papers, one local Zigong, one from my city Chengdu where his two sister live. I was worried but my mom was even worse, she took away his mail box key and would not let him go down. My aunt and the aide said he held the railing plus his cane slowly go down and slowly up.  It is his daily things and it is OK. My mom went down and got his paper, very soon, my uncle was looking for his key, he searched every one of his pockets, nothing.  Then he asked my mom and my mom said she has it but my uncle could not hear unless she yelled close to one of his ears.  I was trying to use my hand pointing my mom, he said to my mom "you gave me the papers, you have to have the keys." My mom did not go to tell him close to his ear so my uncle gave up.  In the evening, my aunt told my mom to give back his keys since he had other keys he needed to use in his room including for his money. He give the aide money for food shopping every 10 days, the aide said my uncle owed him 225.  He already asked him a few times, he forgot to give the money back to him.  So I said, could I give them to you? He said No so I asked my uncle gave him 225.  My uncle first searched his bags, nothing.  Then he used his key opened his locked drawer, he give the aide 300 yuan, but the aide gave him back 75.  My uncle counted the money, he said 10 yuan short.  The said said there was a 20 bill, then I help him count again and showed him 20 yuan.  He then agreed, it was alright and we all needed to make sure the money was alright.
     We visited my youngest aunt's Ju hua grave, her daughter took us there.  My mom cried very hard there. It was her baby sister who died unexpectedly from a traffic accident.  The next day we planned to visit my grand mom's grave.  My aunt yelled at her husband's ear at lunch time, "do you want to go to see your mom?".  He answered, " yes, yes".  After lunch, my aunt left in a rush since she had to go play Mujong with her friend every day till 4 PM.  The aide cleaned up and also left for his break, my mom said my grand mom's grave was half way up the hill, hundreds of steps of steep stairs. We could not take him with us and we could not be responsible if something happened to him.  She was firm that we could not take him.  At the same time, my uncle was preparing his new clothes to take a shower.  I started a panic attack since the aide was not around.  I asked him to wait for the aide to come back. My uncle said he always took a shower himself.  I was still uneasy, so I told him that I would wait outside just in case.  After his shower, he asked me to go to his room to get the navy blue suit hanging in his closet. I went and helped him to put it on, it was difficult but finally helped him button all the buttons to be ready to go.  My mom was watching us from the living room, she walked over and yelled at my uncle's ear, nap time, nap time. almost 2 PM, you are late.  My uncle suddenly woke up and said " yes, nap time, I am going to take a nap".  He slowly walk into his room by his bed, he started to unbutton himself, took off his suit and went to bed instead. I closed his door and we took off to see my grand mom. When I thought my mom was out of her mind, she was very clear, when I thought she did not hear, she heard it.
My Grandmother's gravesite
     While we stayed in Zigong, my mom had two nice phone conversions with my dad.  She showed her care and love to my dad, asking him to take care of himself.  My mom's call melted my father's heart, he told me that we could stay as long as we wanted. My uncle and aunt recommended a family podiatrist to my mom since she walked funny.  She refused to go at first but went later, she ended up having 6 corns taken care of on her both feet.  My brother was coming back 12/31 and leaving on the 3rd, we were going to have a family meeting about hiring a helper for my parents. To make sure we got the tickets, I went to the bus station to get our tickets the day before.  When I told my mom I got the return ticket, she said "you stay here, I will leave tomorrow'.  I looked at her puzzled, she quickly realized her mind was short for a second, she did not say anything to correct herself.  She must remember the old days, she comes and goes and leaves me there.  We could all feel that my mom had her moments, but she refused to go to the doctor for a checkup.  Her annual physical was fine except for her high blood pressure.  My aunt talked to my mom a lot while she was there, telling her that "her nutritional supplements" would not work, only cheated all her money from the pyramid scheme. I did not want to touch the subject, but told her she needed to take her blood pressure pills every day, she needed to take care of my dad the same way she was taking care of her 90 year brother.  Her brother listened to her and takes all the supplements she brought to him.  My father never took her supplements since he got 6-7 kinds of medicines from the best hospital in our region.
     The bus station is very clean and modern; it now has a security check just like the airport. I was amazed that condoms were still free, not in a box like I saw when I was a little; but of course, that is part of the government's population control. They are dispensed from a self-serve machine. I saw a baby backpack made from bamboo, something I have not seen anywhere in the city. I also noticed a farmer with a rooster waiting for the bus; he told me he was going to see his son in the city. When I came too close to the rooster, trying to take a picture, the rooster was scared and he moved away from me and closer to his owner. The poor thing did not know that he would be their dinner soon. Still, the rooster must have had a very close relationship with the owner; he did not look like a caged rooster. He was a happy rooster in the farmer's yard, and wandered free till the day he sacrificed himself for his owner's dinner.
     One thing I liked  was that the bus was under speeding control, the speaker would announce when the driver speeding.  3-4 times both ways, the speaker said "you are close to the speed limit, slow down please.  It would repeat till the driver slowed down.  The bus went to my city every half hour on the hour, over 50 trips each day.  We could also take the train like we used to when I was little but it would be slow since it stops at every stops.
     My brother came back at 1 AM before us, he made us a nice fish dinner. He was asleep in his bedroom already.  My sister said she could sleep in my father's bedroom in that little bed where my brother slept.  I could sleep with my mother. My mother said No.  I said I could sleep in my father's room then, my sister did not need to move, only a week left for me before I go back to USA. I was hoping to move back to my brother's room since he was leaving after New Year's on the 3rd. Boy, I understood why my father's cousin wanted to leave a day after.  After all he was over 60 years old, my father let his son stay in my brother's room. The father in his room, little bed next to his big bed. He would not let anyone into my mom's room so my mom's room was empty. My father's snoring like thunder,  I used the ear plugs from the airplane but they did not help. No wonder my mom moved out and my brother did not want to return.
     My brother took our aunt's family and us out for New Year's.  He booked a private room with a private bathroom for our aunt.  The meal was abundant and also covered my sister's needs since my she was vegetarian.  The meal made my mom very happy, she ate a lot so did everyone else. My father had to watch what he eats since now his blood sugar is little high. By the end, my sister and I packed leftovers.  My sister made sure every plate was clean. I said to my sister that she needed a spatula, she agreed.  Her actions amused my brother. He said "why don't you pack the table and chairs too." I said "if you paid for it, she would." everyone laughed. She packed all leftovers in Zigong as well where my cousins were laughing at her. We, Americans, are just cheap. For us still kept China's old traditions, waste food is something my sister and I could not stand for, my parents generation would agree with us.
     My brother is a wealthy bachelor in our big family, my sister said everything he had was all the best. He has been supporting all family members in need. I asked him if he needed anything before my return, I used to buy him white cotton socks, I asked him if he needed any more.  He did not reply and my sister said not to buy him anything, so I brought him nicotine gums hoping he could quit smoking.  I noticed his white socks on his feet were the same one I brought 5 years ago, they looked very bad. I asked him if he liked the socks why not tell me, the old socks like he was wearing from my boys and husband in my home would be great for floor mops.  I brought some smaller shrunken wool socks would not fit my boys for our northern cousins in the farms.  I picked the best one for my brother since it was much better than the one he was wearing. He put it on the next day.
     After breakfast, my brother was lying on his bed resting. His salted duck egg shell was not cleaned so my mom put it aside.  When my father came around, he noticed the egg shell too and was ready to clean it. I told him mom already saved it and she might look for it later.  He agreed. I was right, my mom did later clean the egg shell and ate every piece on the shell. My sister and I know better, this kind of things would never, never happen to us, we were long trained to clean after ourselves. Since his bedroom door was open I went in and sat next to my brother's bed, he looked tired. He had few words at home but did make my mom agree to hire a helper so my sister could go look for one.
     I called my sister to come in to give my brother a good massage.  She came in and asked if it was what he wanted, she was very careful and a little reserved, I said, yes I could feel his neck was so tight. She asked my brother to turn around on his stomach so she could work on his back.  I was massaging his neck while my sister was working on his back. My mom showed up at the door right away, she rushed over to me and stopped me from whatever I was doing.  She took over and said I was not doing it right. So I was watching two of them working on my brother.  My brother was just lying there and said nothing. We all loved him for sure, he has been a very good brother.  My sister said it might hurt a little since my brother's back is so tight.  I know I would scream when my sister was working on my back. But my brother did not say a word.
     While he was home for two days, he went food shopping Carrefour, a French multinational retailer, he bought me a piece of walnut soft candy, asking me to try it and it was very good, not sweet which is what most Asians wanted. I bought some roasted fava beans from Zigong, he liked. It reminded us of our childhood. After the massage, my brother was in a hurry to catch his flight back.  I had to take out my banana bread out to cut him a piece so he could take it with him.
     Now my brother was gone, I was hoping to move back to his room so I could sleep at night, surprised us all, my mom moved into my brother's room. She said my sister also snores. My sister said her family told her sometimes she snores. I thought my mom was giving me trouble again.  I said I would move in with my sister then.  My father was unhappy, he said "you could sleep anywhere you want".  Oops, I said, OK, I do not have many days left, I will stay in dad's room then.  His snores can't be more noise than trying to sleep on airplanes. My father smiled, he nodded his head and agreed with me. I have to say the first night was the most difficult night, after that it seemed he did not snore that much and not all the time.  When he was quiet, I started to worry.  I was trying so hard to hear his breathing.  Then he made a little sound, I was relieved again.
     I did not realized my brother's socks upset my father, my mom or dad (not sure who) washed my brother's old socks by hand after my brother left.  After drying, my father fold the socks and showed to my mom in front of me.  Ying's family uses this kind of socks as floor mops, she brought some old socks her sons wore for your son to wear. My mom did not say anything, I was upset and replied to him " That is right, we used old socks to mop the floor, if he does not tell me he liked the socks, I would not know, right?  I could buy some to mail them to him if you like."  My father did not say a word walked away.  He was saying that I should have thought about my brother even if he was not asking or reply to me.
     To make my father happy, right after I came back to US, I bought two packs of cotton socks plus an expensive pair of leather shoes for my brother.  Weining brought them back to my brother for me, she happened to come to Boston for a meeting right after I came back to the US , then went back to Chengdu to help her sick father.  Her father and my parents were college mates and they worked together till they retired, and they also lived near each other.  She wanted to add one package for my dad, my mom, and my sister since she planned to bring them something. I told her 'no' so they would not be upset again for me telling her the socks story.
     The next day my sister and I went out to the first senior aide office, interviewed the first woman who was 46 years old.  She was already helping a family after 3 PM so if we needed her any time before, that would be good.  We told her that we had two more persons to see in the afternoon and would get back to her. When we got home for lunch, we told our parent's about the woman we saw.  My father suddenly changed his mind about 4-5 hrs each day.  He told us that he needed to have 3 hot meals, home cleaning twice a week.  His change tossed our 3 people we just found.  We needed a 12 hours aide from 7 AM to 7 PM to cover 3 meals plus all the cleanings he needs.  We called the first woman we saw, she said she would have her mom drop off her kid to school so she could come at 7 AM but she will still need to leave at 2:30 PM the latest. We call the other two back, they told us they could only start at 9AM for 3-4 hours when their kids are in school. We have to start our search all over. My mom stopped the whole thing by saying they would not need any help, they could do everything themselves.  She was upset and firm!  My father backed out completely after my mom spoke. He now agreed with my mom, as long as my mom was not out all the time.  Two of them could manage everything.  But the fact still remained, they could not do everything, My sister and I were gone one night, when we came back, their rooms were steaming because the water in the kitchen was boiling for who know how long, my parents were watching TV.  The sound was blasting so that they could not even hear what we tried to say. I told my brother about what happened, he asked me to leave him all the information we had. I have been washing dishes since I got back, my sister was cooking.  I also cleaned every room including floors, window and doors and I could see my father was happy to see me cleaning.
Chimonanthus praecox (腊梅 làméi in Chinese)
     When I was in Chengdu and Zigong, I saw and smelled one of my favorite flowers blooming; it was Chimonanthus praecox (腊梅 làméi in Chinese), also known as wintersweet or Japanese allspice, a native to China. It has always symbolized pretty and strong women in Chinese poems, because it blooms in the winter.





     Another was Magnolia × alba, also known as White Champaca, white sandalwood, or the white jade orchid tree. I asked about these white, very fragrant flowers. I know it was not blooming time but I bought them before, so I was looking for them again.  My sister and my cousins were laughing at me, they said I must have mixed up the times since the flower was blooming in the summer. But I insisted that I bought some from a old lady who carried a small bamboo basket.  No one believed me so I had to give up.  Two days before I left Chengdu, on the way back from our shopping, my sister and I saw the lady again, she was right there, almost the same spot selling the flowers.  I was so excited and ran over to her.  She turned out to be the same lady from whom I bought the flowers 5 years ago, still the same price, one yuan for two. I bought 10 yuan worth.  The flowers came from a warmer place, Panzhihua (攀枝花), in the southern part of my province.  She was so happy and told us that we must have fate (缘分) since she carried her small basket wandering in the city.  She told me she had 3 sons, one of her sons paid over 30,000 yuan fine to keep his second son.  She emptied all her bank account to help her son but still her son's marriage did not survive.  Now the government allows two children but her low income could not pay her bills so she kept working and walking all over the city.  She was my father's age but much more healthy and happy.

Magnolia × alba


   


Chengdu's new subway, seniors free from 9AM - 5PM
       My mom has been very defensive since I got back, she does not like me talk to anyone.  When I was talking to my aunt she was wondering what we talked about. When I thought she did not hear me she did. When I thought she was confused, she was very clear in mind. She mentioned one thing I did not know about my aunt after we got back to Chengdu. She said when she went back to deliver our youngest sister, my aunt was upset from something.  She actually left her home and went to her older sister's place back in year of 1968. My uncle was very upset, their sky was crashing down without her. My mom was due any day, My grandpa was lying in bed, my grandma with bounded feet, their 3 kids plus me. 8 people needed her to feed, only she was capable to accomplish this task while working full time. I never remembered or saw my uncle or my aunt ever upset, my uncle was such a easy going person. Yes, my aunt talked a lot, but she did all the housework. My mom did not feel a bit sorry for her as if it was her job. I only remembered my grandpa died and my sister was born around the same time, not knowing my aunt left home for a few days. My mom loves her older brother unconditionally. He saved the whole family by working instead of continuing his higher education. He refused to marry till all his siblings finished college and he turned 30 years old. I had to tell my mom that I am on her side to make her happy.  The truth is that my aunt is really  an incredible woman.  She still has a very clear mind, good hearing and is free to go out walking, taking the bus to wherever. They do not have any kids living close by, one 90 and one 88 years old, they lived a very good life together. They are our examples and we all need to learn from them.
     I was very stressed that I have not really getting close to my mom and I am leaving the next day. Around 2:30 PM, my mom called me over to sit next to her. Ow, I was so happy, rushed over to her.  She started to show me her book with a big magnifying glass, the same book a Japanese wrote and was translated into Chinese, it was her bible. She started to read the book slowly with her magnifying glass.  Her older brother too, refused to wear glasses or a hearing aid, he used the same kind of magnifying glass to read. Two of them sat on the sofa reading with magnifying glasses, my aunt said to me "the two do belong to the same family".  I laughed.
     I sat next to my mom leaning over her shoulder listening.  It was like our old days every time I called her, she read to me on the phone, newsletter or book, it could last over an hour.  I looked at her face close, my poor mother, she lost a lot of weight and really aged. She was thinking about the pharmacist Mr Wu's wife Zhang back in USA.  Her feet kept growing a big blister, no one knows why but it is very painful.  I felt my father was jealous about Mr Wu since I was close to him.  I thought my mom too since she refused to talk to them when I was talking to them.  Now my mom gave me 4 bottles of one kind, another few sheets of different kinds of pills, filled up my last space of my carry on.  She thought about her, she wanted to ease her pain.  I put my hand over her head telling her one strand of her hair was up, I just needed to pat them down.  She did not refuse my touch and I felt so happy I could be close to her again like we used to be.  My sister was passing by after finishing giving my father a massage in his room, she put her thumb up and smiled to me.  My mom refused her massage, but it did help my father a lot since he has a disc on his back in the wrong place. He could not walk straight, also improve his hand and feet numbness.
    After dinner, I told my father that I will sleep with my sister in my mom's room since I had to leave at 4 AM in the morning.  This way we would not disturb them.  My father said he would be up anyway.  Boy, my mother was right, my sister does snore, not much better than my father since I am much closer to her on the same bed.  I did not sleep much again.  About 3:30 AM next morning, my mom got up and we were all surprised.  My mom stuffed a set of home aid set for back pain with herbs into a extra bag that I carried with extra clothes.  I pushed my mom back to my brother's room, helped her back to her bed.  I hugged her really tight and gave her a kiss on each side of her cheek. She pushed me away, and said "we do not do that."  I then covered her with her blankets while she sat on the bed.  I held her hands, "Mom, please talk to me when I call you like you used to."  Please take your blood pressure pills everyday, you could live very long if you get your blood pressure under control.  No skipping the pills please.  Then I saw my father walk out of his room, I then pushed him back to his room, helped him back to his bed.  I hugged him very tight and also kissed him on the cheeks, he kissed back on my cheeks and we both started to cry.  I asked him to take the best care of himself, stay calm and let things go.  I will be back soon, make sure wait for me.
     My sister helped me with my 50 lbs suitcase, my backpack was heavy too plus a bag of clothes now stuffed full.  We had booked a taxi last night, asking him to wait at the gate at 4 AM to take us to the airport.  He did not show up so my sister called him, he did not pick up the phone.  So we started to walk towards the main road, a taxi came by so we stopped him.  He happened to be coming from my father's hometown, working as a taxi driver in my city over 5 years.  I asked him if he used to live in the south with very high humility, he was fine, then he said he needed to fill up the gas, only 5 minutes.  I started to get nervous since he was getting off the highway.  After a short drive, he did stop at a gas station.  We stepped out of the car so he could fill the gas, I did not know he was filling up real natural gas in liquid form, not petroleum.  He later said since Sichuan has abundant natural gas, all taxis use natural gas, one fill could run a little over 270 kilometers.  It also reminded me about what my father had told me about natural gas.  In his life time, they were the only one and others were begging them for the natural gas.  Now Russian gas entered China, one of their gas companies went bankrupt due to the competition.  Now they have salesmen out there selling gas.
     My return flight was smooth; two of my sons went back to college already, only Joe was home for a few more days.  Anthony's father was scheduled for his surgery the day after I returned.  He was diagnosed with colon cancer.  Anthony planned to drive home to help his father for a week and he did.  I was a little surprised that his mother sent me an email thanking me for borrowing my husband for a week.  I replied that it was his duty since he was her son.  I went back to China for 3 weeks and my sister was still there since last May.  When I was there, my father actually mentioned a daughter of one of his colleagues actually quit her job in order to take care of her parents.  I replied to him that every family is different, I was sure his daughter did was her best choice.  The neighbors all blamed us that we married too far away and now my parents agreed with them.
     A famous phrase says "少不入蜀, 老不出川" which means "When you are young, do not enter Sichuan. When you are old, do not leave Sichuan". Young men from the North would enter Sichuan, and they would soon marry Sichuan's beautiful girls, and would never return to the North and forgot about their own families in the North. My father is a perfect example.
    The good news finally came this February, my brother's request for caring for his aging parents came through. He was transferred back to his home city at the end of February. My parents and my sister were overjoyed. Finally my sister came back to the US, and her family, her in-laws were very happy as well. My brother works during the day, and returns to my parents home everyday. He shops and cooks, and on the weekend, he would do all the cleaning. My father told me that my mom still ordered her health pills, just much less now. The only thing he felt uneasy was that my brother was spending his money covering all their expenses. He refused to take money from my father. I told him not to worry since my brother could afford to take care of them. My sister and I would try to come to see them soon.
 
Starbucks offers to pay health insurance for parents of some China employees : It is required under China's "Protection of the Rights and Interests of the Elderly" law that family members provide for the financial and medical needs of their parents.

 





Wednesday, October 12, 2016

My Baby Joe is Freshman in College and Jonathan is in 2nd year Med school.

Time flies and we are entering the 'empty nest' stage of our life. We have been much more relaxed to the youngest one since he was born, everything has been 'whatever.' Although he did not have as high grades as my older two in high school, he was still in the top 10%. My oldest son never played any online games, the second one quit when he was a Junior in high school, but Joe did not quit even in Senior year when he supposed to prepare for his SAT and ACT tests. When I caught him playing online games after work, I was upset, so his dad told him not to let me catch him playing games. He said "now your mom is not happy, so no one is happy. You know she is coming home after 5, so why not stop playing before mom returns home." He found an SAT and ACT online training for Free but you could also pay for more training. Half way into the Summer, he was still not making further progress. I said "Maybe you have to pay the site in order to make progress or you are making circles and not getting anywhere. It turns out I was right, his SAT and ACT scores were average.
     He did not get accepted into Middlebury (Ranked 4 Liberal arts colleges) and he was sad because he could not join his brothers. He finally stopped playing online games. He decided to go to St Michael's (Ranked 99), 50 miles away from Middlebury, also in VT. 
Middlebury College Virtual Campus Tour
I Like St. Mike's
     We all love the natural rural setting of the small college, not too far but away from home to give him room to grow more independent. He did not make it to Middlebury, but he was the one made it to the State Competitions for track. Jonathan is in med school now and his brother Richard learned all the mistakes from his older brother, and he got much better MCAT scores and is now aiming better Med school. Joe on the other hand wants to major in Pharmacy, so he could help his brothers.
     Ivy league College rejection did affect Jonathan a lot on his confidence. First year College was difficult for him, all his school years before college, his grade was never below "A". He got his first "C" on linear algebra in college. His classmates dropped the class left and right, only Asian stayed. He thought he was half Asian, he tried his best and still got a "C". He said one of his Asian classmates did not even come to the class yet got an "A" because he already knew everything the professor taught in class. The "C" made him think he was not that smart, he was wondering what kind of major was better for him.
     It took almost 3 years for Jonathan to decide what he wanted to do with his life. He thought about majoring in writing since he used to get 100 in high school, writing was easy for him. His professor disagreed with some of his views and wanted him to change an essay in order to pass. He picked a very difficult subject "Hitler's Childhood", and he thought he did a very deep research on the subject. He also disagreed with his professor about some of the literature. So he gave it up.
     He thought about becoming a musician, he joined the college Orchestra and continued his private violin lessons. His new violin teacher was from Massachusetts, and a wealthy family in VT let the teacher use the family heirloom violin with the condition she had to spent time teaching violin in VT. Therefore she drove 4 hours each week to VT to teach violin, and Jonathan was one of her students. I reminded Jonathan about his older cousin who was majoring in music but abandoned his career altogether in order to feed his family. I used to give his high-school violin teacher a ride to the subway, since he had nothing except his violin. We used to see musicians in Cambridge with one hand carrying a musical instrument, the other hand a plastic bag to find soda bottles to return for 5 cents. If you want to be a musician, you have to prepare to be poor.
     He then tried to be geologist, I encouraged him since both of my parents were geologists. Anthony's father started his college wanting to be a geologist; he even gave his rock collection to Jonathan. He joined a senior field trip to White Sands National Monument and Carlsbad Caverns National Park. He did not want to become a geologist because he did not like to camp out that long. So he still wondered but decided on Biology for a major in his second year. He said he likes teaching children, so he could be a high school teacher.
     The 3rd year study abroad in Germany helped him determine what he wanted to do for his life. Compared to his high school German trip staying with a host family, German college classes were very different, and he also felt alone and really felt what it was to be a foreigner. His German was not good enough for the German junior college course, so he made an appointment to ask the professor questions, but only found that the professor's door was closed, so he waited an hour outside of his office hoping he would show up, but his professor was inside waiting for him. He did not knock on the door because his professors in the US do not close their doors unless they are not there.
     He had to buy food and cook his meals; the college cafeteria only served lunch like dinner. He was not used to eat such a big lunch. He had 3 German students sharing the living suite space; they were friendly to each other, but still spent most of his time with the other American students there. One weekend when we Skyped, he said "Mom, you should be happy that I joined Tai Chi class here in Germany". I asked "by a Chinese teacher", he said "No, a German", I said "A German went to China and learned Tai Chi", he said, "No, he never went to China, but learned from another German". I was a little skeptical but happy he was trying to find a way to manage his stress. One day in his Tai Chi class, a German girl next to him suddenly dropped to the ground, having a seizure, he was shocked and froze with panic, he did not know what to do. He wanted to help her, but did not know how. From the far corner of the room, a medical student ran over and performed CPR on her before the ambulance came and took her away. She was a pretty and slender young student and looked healthy to Jonathan. From that moment, Jonathan wanted to be a doctor, he wanted to be like the other medical student. To make sure, he applied to a non-paid internship at Charité in Berlin where he ended up paying over 600 Euro/month for rent and got up at 5 AM in the morning to take a bus to the hospital to be a surgeon's nurse's assistant. He saw the dying patients for the first time, trying his best to help them. He was eager to get up in the morning and he looked forward to see his patients. One of his patients told him that he was a "mother without breast" in German (a German expression). He also had a paid internship in Heidelberg University to help a PHD student with robotic micro surgery research to see if he liked medical research better. He liked to be a doctor to interact and help patients, not a nurse following doctors directions. He made his decision.
     The fourth year back to US college was the most difficult year in his 4 years college life, he had to take all science classes to be pre-med biology major. He did not have enough science classes. Since he is finally focused now, his grades were also the best and he received his first award from the dean, but his overall GPA was on the low side for trying to get into med school. He was competing with the kids who wanted to be a doctor since high school. His college mates suggested him to pay for online MCAT training but he did not want to pay thousands of dollars. Books only cost $400, he wanted to work it on his own, but his testing score was low. He took an EMT training and passed the test. He went to working for an EMT ambulance while waiting to see if any med school accepted him. He did not get accepted by any of the MD schools, but one DO school took him in so he was very happy. Yes, his brother Richard wants to do better than him. Talking about 'sibling rivalry.'

Friday, January 8, 2016

Girls Need to Follow and Keep Their Mother's Family Name

 Modern research shows that Mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) is the constant gene passed on from mother to daughter and son, but not from the father. Therefore only mothers pass on their mtDNA to their daughters; the mtDNA tells about daughter, mother, to mother's mother, and so on along the direct maternal line. Most girls traditionally follows their father's family name; each generation of girls have a different family name so the mother's family's name gets lost. This needs to change! Girls need to follow their mothers name since boys already follow their father's name. When a woman is married, they should keep their own maiden name, and there should be less close cousins marrying each other. It is true in China today; my mother kept her maiden name like every other married woman in China, but it is still her father's.


Mitochondrial DNA
     ZhuPu (族) is the most effective way to track the male Y chromosome and has kept the single family name villages in China for thousands of years. It is unknown how the ancient Chinese knew the fact that the male Y chromosome is a constant gene passed on from father to son only. I have searched my roots on my mother's "Guan (官)" side back for 18 generations and my father's "Han (韓)" side for 7 generations. As a woman, I do not carry the "Y" chromosome of Guan or Han, so I need to search my grandmother "Xia (夏)" which means Summer her mother (not Xia for sure), her mother's mother (??)... they all had different surnames and they were not on their family ZhuPu. I do not know anything about her Xia familyThe only way was to test the mtDNA to identify the world origin of a person's lineage which is a daunting task.  Since I do not have a daughter, the unique mtDNA would have died with me but I have a sister who has a daughter who carries on the line of mtDNA to any of her future daughters.
      My ancestral maternal lineage's route followed the east coast of India, to Burma, and then branched into a northern route headed to China and a southern route through Indochina, Indonesia, finally to Australia. So I also have many cousins along both of these paths.
    Before the test, like 92% of all Chinese, I believed that I was a "Han Chinese (汉)", but the results showed that I barely had 30% "Han (汉)". The Mitochondria DNA test shows that I am every woman. I am a Han Chinese, I am Japanese. I am also Dai, Maio, Yi, Lahu, She, Mongol, Tujia, Naxi, Tu, Daur. They covered China's North, Northwest, Northeast, South, Southwest and Southeast.  I do not know much about them since I lived in the culture race of "Han"
     Japanese: Han Chinese and Japanese have their DNA cluster very close. The first known written reference of Japan was recorded in the Chinese Book of Han in the first century AD. The first era of recorded history in Japan was the Kofun (250-538 A.D.), characterized by large burial mounds or tumuli. The Kofun were headed by a class of aristocratic warlords; they adopted many Chinese customs and innovations. Buddhism came to Japan during the Asuka Period, 538-710, as did the Chinese writing system. Today, 49% of Japanese words are loan-words from Chinese.
     Chinese-style pillar-and-bracket architecture reached Japan in the sixth century. The world's oldest and the only surviving Chinese style palace in Tang Dynasty (618-907) at today's Horyuji.
Ancient Chinese Buildings
Hōryū-ji (法隆寺) in Japan
     Japanese traditional clothing (Kimonos), kimono has another name, gofuku (呉服 literally "clothes of Wu (吳)") the earliest kimonos were heavily influenced by traditional Han Chinese clothing, Chinese fashions came into style among the Japanese during the 8th century; overlapping collar became particularly women's fashion.
Chinese Traditional Women Clothing
Japanese traditional clothing (Kimonos)
Banquet of Emperor (mural, Eastern Han (25AD-220 AD)
China moved on but the Japanese still kept the Chinese tradition today.  Still sleep on the floor.

Chinese Treasures of Japan Part 1

Chinese Treasures of Japan Part 2

Chinese Treasures of Japan Part 3

Chinese Treasures of Japan Part 4

     Mongols (蒙古族): Mongols took over China, 5.8 million people classified as ethnic Mongols living in China today. To the Han Chinese, the dairy foods Mongolians eat marked them as barbarian foes. This may be why dairy products never became popular in China. Lamb and beef, the meat dishes of the Mongols, did enter mainstream Chinese cuisine. Fermented milk (yogurt) was probably the only dairy food that did gain a foothold; it is popular and now available everywhere. Hot pot originated in Mongolia where the main ingredient was beef, mutton, or horse. It spread to southern China during the Song Dynasty and was further established during the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty; regional variations developed with different ingredients such as seafood.  I love hot pot with lamb, beef and mutton, but never had horse meat.
     Mongolian clothes had a major impact on Han traditional clothes, By combining the essence of the Han traditional clothes and the Mongolian clothes, tight and narrow, with a round collar and buttons typically used to secure the collar, short-sleeved, loose outer garment, it was adopted as the standard military uniform owing to its ease to take off and wear by soldiers when riding horses, also much more convenience.
 
     Daur people (达斡尔族): are descendants of the Khitan. In the 17th century, some or all of the Daurs lived along the Shilka, upper Amur, on the Zeya and Bureya River. They thus gave their name to the region of Dauria, also called Transbaikal, now the area of Russia East of Lake Baikal. A customary sport of the Daur is Beikou, a game similar to field hockey or street hockey, which has been played by the Daur for about 1,000 years. Many Daurs are Shamanists and Lamaism.
    A video about the Khitans (388 CE-1218 CE) with a collection of Khitan-related pictures carefully chosen from various sources. The Khitans played an important role in the history of East Asia, Central Asia and Eurasia in general. Yelu Chucai was a Khitan advisor who was highly respected by Genghis Khan.
 The Rise Of Genghis Khan And The Mongol Empire Documentary - Documentary Channel 
    About 132,000 Daur in China today, most live in Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner (Mòlì Dáwǎ Dáwò'ěrzú Zìzhìqí 莫力達瓦達斡爾族自治旗/莫力达瓦达斡尔族自治旗) in Hulun Buir, Inner Mongolia autonomous region of China. There are also some near Tacheng in Xinjiang, where their ancestors were moved during the Qing Dynasty. Lady Gobulo, a Daur, Empress Xiaokemin (Lady Gobulo, Empress Hsiao-ko-min; 13 November 1906 – 20 June 1946), better known as Empress Wanrong, was the empress of Puyi, the last Emperor of China and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty.
Empress Wanrong (Gobulo Wanrong 郭布羅·婉容) is a Daur
     I guess my liight hair, when I was a child, could have come from Daur and Mongols.  I do love the music from the horse-head fiddle (morin khuur морин хуур) on "Beautiful Grassland".
Lang Lang and his father's Erhu "Horse Racing" at Carnegie Hall
The Miao (苗族): descended from the Jiuli tribe led by Chiyou (蚩尤). One of the first rice farmers in China. Some might have connected the Miao to the Daxi Culture (5,300 - 6,000 years ago) in the Yangtze River region. Most believe Ua Dab , others Taoism, Christianity, and Buddhism.  Historically, the term "Miao" had been applied inconsistently to a variety of non-Han peoples, include Hmong, Hmub, Xong (Qo-Xiong), and A-Hmao. 11 million people are divided into four major groups of Miao in China:
  1. Ghao Xong/Qo Xiong; Xong; Red Miao; Qo Xiong Miao: west Hunan
  2. Gha Ne/Ka Nao; Hmub; Black Miao; Mhub Miao: southeast Guizhou
  3. A-Hmao; Big Flowery Miao: west Guizhou and northeast Yunnan
  4. Gha-Mu; Hmong, Mong; White Miao, Green/Blue Miao, Small Flowery Miao; south and east Yunnan, south Sichuan and west Guizhou 

Hmong History : The Miao People of China
The Tujia (土家族): was in historical records as the Tujia from about 14th century, over 8 million, the 8th largest ethnic minority today. They live in the Wuling Mountains, straddling the common borders of Hunan, Hubei and Guizhou Provinces, and Chongqing Municipality, used to be  Ba Kingdom. Most of the Tujia worship a white tiger totem, some Tujia in western Hunan worship a turtle totem.

Travelogue - Tujia 
The She (畲) people:  are some of the earliest known settlers of GuangdongYuet people moved south during the Warring States period, waves of migrants from northern China have had a serious impact on the She people. Some She later moved to Zhejiang when Hakka moved in, there are a lot of She girls married into Hakka family.  In a census in year 2000, 709,592 She people have been counted in China.

The Unique She Wedding / 畲族婚礼 
 The Nakhi (纳西族): the descendants of the nomadic proto-Qiang, 300,000 of them live on the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province.  Nakhi split into three groups as the Nakhi in Lijiang (丽江), the Bai in Dali (大理), and Mosuo around the Lugu Lake (泸沽湖). The Nakhi's native religion was Dongba, Tibetan Buddhism (especially the Mosuo). Taoism and its "fengshui".
The Mosuo are often referred to as China's "last Matrilineal society
The Nakhi (纳西族)
 China World Heritage List :: Old Town of Lijiang
Travelogue 2011-03-07 Ethnic Odyssey:Dali Bai Minority
The Women's Kingdom - PBS FRONTLINE Broadcast
 The Monguor (蒙古尔) or Tu people (土族, 土昆), White Mongol or Tsagaan Mongol: "Tu" came from the name of Tuyühu Khan, who was the older son of the King of Murong Xianbei who migrated westward from the northeast in 284. The DNA of the Tu people indicate that Europeans similar to modern Greeks mixed with an East Asian population around 1200 BC. The source of this European DNA might have been merchants from the Silk Road. According to 2010 census, there are 289,565 Tu today live in mostly in the Qinghai and Gansu provinces.  They practice Yellow Sect (or Tibetan) Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Christianity, and Shamanism.
  
Huzhu Mongghul (Tu) Bo (Shaman)
The Yi or Lolo people (彝族):  8 million descended from the ancient Qiang people of today's western China. Yi also live in Vietnam, and Thailand.  Yi used to be divided into Black Yi (nobles), qunuo or White Yi (commoners), and slaves before communist took over China. The Yi script was logosyllabic, similiar to Chinese, dated back to the 13th century. Under the Communist government, the script was standardized as a syllabary. Syllabic Yi is widely used in books, newspapers, and street signs. Bimoism (毕摩教) is the indigenous religion, also Buddhism and Christianity.
Watch tower
Life and culture of China's Yi ethnic minority

 The Dai people (傣族), 1,158,989 Dai are one of several ethnic groups living in the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in southern Yunnan, also in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Burma. Practice Theravada Buddhism and Dai folk religion.

Life and culture of China's Dai ethnic minority 
 
Yang Liping (杨丽萍), a Bai's Peacock Dance
 The Lahu people (拉祜族): among the ancient Qiang people of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Migrating slowly southward. 720,000 live live in Yunnan province, mostly in Lancang Lahu Autonomous County, also in Thailand. Religion is polytheistic. Buddhism was introduced in the late 17th century and became widespread.

Lahu's life by Lancang River
     I have always been interested in Chinese minorities.  I got a chance to know Tibetans more since I used work in the region.  I have met Naxi, Bai, Dai. I had a chance back in the 1980s to visit the Inner Mongolia Grasslands but the heavy rain cancelled my trip.  Just looking at the picture of the vast grassland gives me the peace, but living in the tent would give me nightmares. Social race and culture,and economics and geography divided us apart. 


A Tour of Chinese Ethnic Minorities

Chinese Ethnic Minorities in Chinese New Year

 

List of ethnic groups in China

 

How Neanderthals Gave Us Secret Powers