|Han City (韩城) in Ming and Qing Dynasty|
|Dengzhou (邓州)in 1662-1722|
Red-hatched areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (open dotted lines). The solid dotted line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.
After Japan surrendered in 1945, he joined the army at the end of that year when he was 12 years of age. First, he was in the military Guanzhong subdistrict guard battalion (关中军分区警卫营), which later became the Shaanxi and Gansu Border Region Defense Group (陕甘宁边区 保卫团), and then the Northwest Military and Political Committee of Xi'an Defense Group (西北军政委员会西安保卫团). He remembered how they tricked Hu Zongnan’s (胡宗南) 100,000 person army out of the city of Xi'an (西安). The real communist troops from the Northwest (西北军) and Northeast (华北军) could face him. A thousand of my father’s local army told the remaining local army that they were surrounded., either join them or to prepare to fight in two hours time. The wording was very carefully chosen on papers, not surrender, nor treason, but reorganization and reassignment. They kept everything of theirs plus more than the Communist army which made some very upset, especially the ones who went through the Long March, and a few committed suicide. They decided to join the communist army but put on a show as if they were fighting for a few hours, only shooting at the sky. My father and the rest of the 10,000 peasant soldiers walked into Xi'an (西安) when the city gate was opened. The city was like a ghost town without anyone on the street. All the shops and doors were closed; they brought their food along with their horse carriage, but it was very limited so they ate very little at a time and my father was hungry most of the time. My father said he did not even have a uniform; his Chinese-made rifle was so old that all the paint already had peeled away. All of the Nationalist soldiers only needed to take off their symbols, and sew on two black buttons to replace them, since they really had nothing else. Together, they were shouting “Protect Chang'an (长安)”; the local people were not convinced yet until the communist army defeated the Nationalists Hu Zongnan’s (胡宗南). The Communist Army from the Northwest (西北军) and Northeast (华北军) marched into the city with real army uniforms and American weapons, which were taken from the defeated Nationalist Army. They marched from the North gate to the South gate, and the East to the West gate; it was the first time for my father to see the Communist army this good, but still without cars, the horse carriage carried the heavy artillery.
In 1951, Allyn Rickett was an American student in revolutionary China. He was also a spy. Along with his wife Adele, he was arrested and spent four years in a Chinese prison undergoing a process of criticism and self-criticism. Gradually, he came to realize that what he did was spying, and that it was hurting the Chinese people. In 1995, MIM and 14 other organizations brought Allyn Rickett to the University of Massachusetts for the first Prison Awareness Week. He spoke on his experience in revolutionary China where the government used study, self-criticism and labor to rehabilitate its enemies.