Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Unfair Treaties after Losing Two Opium Wars

The Emperor Daoguang's (道光) three sons, including his heir, died of opium addiction. The Emperor ordered the officials at Canton to tighten up controls, but Britain did not want to lose their 2000% profit on each 130 pound chest of opium. The British Company sold 3,000 chests in 1790 and 30,000 chests in 1836. Between 1820 and 1835 alone, China’s population of opium addicts grew 50 fold. British received £5,316,800 opium money from from China in 1904 alone.
     Commissioner Lin Zexu (林则徐) was sent by Emperor Daoguang to Guangdong to halt the sale of opium. In 1839, he did give warning before destroy opium which resulting the war. Lin Zexu wrote an open letter to Queen Victoria:(see jspivey.wikispaces.com/file/view/OpiuminChina.doc)
     “His Majesty the Emperor comforts and cherishes foreigners as well as Chinese: he loves all the people in the world without discrimination. Whenever profit is found, he wishes to share it with all men; whenever harm appears, he likewise will eliminate it on behalf of all of mankind. His heart is in fact the heart of the whole universe.
     Generally speaking, the succeeding rulers of your honorable country have been respectful and obedient. Time and again they have sent petitions to China, saying: "We are grateful to His Majesty the Emperor for the impartial and favorable treatment he has granted to the citizens of my country who have come to China to trade," etc. I am pleased to learn that you, as the ruler of your honorable country, are thoroughly familiar with the principle of righteousness and are grateful for the favor that His Majesty the Emperor has bestowed upon your subjects. Because of this fact, the Celestial Empire, following its traditional policy of treating foreigners with kindness, has been doubly considerate towards the people from England. You have traded in China for almost 200 years, and as a result, your country has become wealthy and prosperous.
     As this trade has lasted for a long time, there are bound to be unscrupulous as well as honest traders. Among the unscrupulous are those who bring opium to China to harm the Chinese; they succeed so well that this poison has spread far and wide in all the provinces. You, I hope, will certainly agree that people who pursue material gains to the great detriment of the welfare of others can be neither tolerated by Heaven nor endured by men...
     Your country is more than 60,000 li from China. The purpose of your ships in coming to China is to realize a large profit. Since this profit is realized in China and is in fact taken away from the Chinese people, how can foreigners return injury for the benefit they have received by sending this poison to harm their benefactors? They may not intend to harm others on purpose, but the fact remains that they are so obsessed with material gain that they have no concern whatever for the harm they can cause to others. Have they no conscience? I have heard that you strictly prohibit opium in your own country, indicating unmistakably that you know how harmful opium is. You do not wish opium to harm your own country, but you choose to bring that harm to other countries such as China. Why?
     The products that originate from China are all useful items. They are good for food and other purposes and are easy to sell. Has China produced one item that is harmful to foreign countries? For instance, tea and rhubarb are so important to foreigners’ livelihood that they have to consume them every day. Were China to concern herself only with her own advantage without showing any regard for other people's welfare, how could foreigners continue to live? Foreign products like woolen cloth and beiges rely on Chinese raw materials such as silk for their manufacturing. Had China sought only her own advantage, where would the foreigners’ profit come from? The products that foreign countries need and have to import from China are too numerous to enumerate: from food products such molasses, ginger, and cassia to useful necessities such as silk and porcelain. The imported goods from foreign countries, on the other hand, are merely playthings which can be easily dispensed with without causing any ill effect. Since we do not need these things really, what harm would come if we should decide to stop foreign trade altogether? The reason why we unhesitantly allow foreigners to ship out such Chinese products as tea and silk is that we feel that wherever there is an advantage, it should be shared by all the people in the world....
     I have heard that you are a kind, compassionate monarch. I am sure that you will not do to others what you yourself do not desire. I have also heard that you have instructed every British ship that sails for Guangzhou not to bring any prohibited goods to China. It seems that your policy is as enlightened as it is proper. The fact that British ships have continued to bring opium to China results perhaps from the impossibility of making a thorough inspection of all of them owing to their large numbers. I am sending you this letter to reiterate the seriousness with which we enforce the law of the Celestial Empire and to make sure that merchants from your honorable country will not attempt to violate it again.
     I have heard that the areas under your direct jurisdiction such as London, Scotland, and Ireland do not produce opium; it is produced instead in your Indian possessions such as Bengal, Madras, Bombay, Patna, and Malwa. In these possessions the English people not only plant opium poppies that stretch from one mountain to another but also open factories to manufacture this terrible drug. As months accumulate and years pass by, the poison they have produced increases in its wicked intensity, and its repugnant odor reaches as high as the sky. Heaven is furious with anger, and all the gods are moaning with pain! It is hereby suggested that you destroy and plow under all of these opium plants and grow food crops instead, while issuing an order to punish severely anyone who dares to plant opium poppies again. If you adopt this your policy of love so as to produce good and exterminate evil, Heaven will protect you, and gods will bring you good fortune. Moreover, you will enjoy a long life and be rewarded with a multitude of children and grandchildren! In short, by taking this one measure, you can bring great happiness to others as well as yourself. Why do you not do it?
     The right of foreigners to reside in China is a special favor granted by the Celestial Empire, and the profits they have made are those realized all in China. As time passes by, some of them stay in China for a longer period than they do in their own country. For every government, past or present, one of its primary functions is to educate all the people living within its jurisdiction, foreigners as well as its own citizens, about the law and to punish them if they choose to violate it. Since a foreigner who goes to England to trade has to obey the English law, how can an Englishman not obey the Chinese law when he is physically within China? The present law calls for the imposition of the death sentence on any Chinese who has peddled or smoked opium. Since a Chinese could not peddle or smoke opium if foreigners had not brought it to China, it is clear that the true culprits of a Chinese's death as a result of an opium conviction are the opium traders from foreign countries. Being the cause of other people's death, why should they themselves be spared from capital punishment? A murderer of one person is subject to the death sentence; just imagine how many people opium has killed! This is the rationale behind the new law which says that any foreigner who brings opium to China will be sentenced to death by hanging or beheading. Our purpose is to eliminate this poison once and for all and to the benefit of all mankind.
     Our Celestial Empire towers over all other countries in virtue and possesses a power great and awesome enough to carry out its wishes. But we will not prosecute a person without warning him in advance; that is why we have made our law explicit and clear. If the merchants of honorable country wish to enjoy trade with us on a permanent basis, they must fearfully observe our law by cutting off, once and for all, the supply of opium. Under no circumstance should they test our intention to enforce the law by deliberately violating it. You, as the ruler of your honorable country, should do your part to uncover the hidden and unmask the wicked. It is hoped that you will continue to enjoy your country and become more and more respectful and obeisant. How wonderful it is that we can enjoy the blessing of peace!”
 
1. Treaty of Nanjing (南京條約 1842): The Qing Daoguang Emperor was obliged to pay the British government 6 million silver dollars for the opium that was confiscated. Three million dollars in compensation to British merchants and a further 12 million dollars in compensation for the cost of the opium war. The total sum of 21 million dollars was to be paid in installments over three years with an annual interest rate of 5 percent. Opened five ports along the eastern coast of China. Britons were to be allowed to trade with anyone they wished. Made Hong Kong Island a crown colony.
Treaty of Nanjing
 2. Treaty of the Bogue (虎門條約 1843): UK received extraterritoriality and most favored nation status, and allowed to buy property in the treaty ports and reside there.
3.Treaty of Wangxia (中美望廈條約 1844): the U.S received most-favored-nation status, resulting in the US receiving the same beneficial treatment China gave to other powers such as Britain.
4.Treaty of Whampoa (黄埔条约 1844): France received the same privileges as the UK under the Treaty of Nanjing.
5.Treaty of Aigun (瑷珲条约1858): Russia received over 600,000 square kilometers in Siberia (231,660-sq mi) from China.
6.Treaty of Tientsin (天津条约1858): opened 11 additional Chinese ports to foreigners, permitted foreign laws in Beijing, allowed Christian missionaries, legalized the import of opium. Paid an indemnity to Britain and France of 2 million in silver, and compensation to British merchants 3 million in silver after China lost the Second Opium War. Banned Chinese from calling British Officials "yi" (barbarians).
Treaty of Tientsin (天津条约1858)
7. Convention of Peking (北京條約1861): Kowloon ceded to Britain. Ceded parts of Outer Manchuria to the Russian Empire. It granted Russia the right to a part of modern day Primorye.

8.Treaty of Tientsin (中德通商條約 1861): a treaty with Germany under Treaty of Tiensing. 
9.The Chefoo Convention (煙臺條約 1876): the settlement of the murder of Augustus Raymond Margary a year before and compensation to Margary's relatives. British subject extraterritorial privileges in China. Prohibiting and outlawing other forms of taxes on foreign goods and opening a number of new ports.
10.Treaty of Tientsin (中法新約1885): required China to recognize the French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin established by the Treaty of Hue in June 1884, abandoning claims to sovereignty over Vietnam, the treaty formalized France's victory in the Sino-French War.
11. Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking (中葡北京條約 1887): a trade treaty signed with Portugal; sovereignty over Macao was surrendered to Portugal.
Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking (中葡北京條約 1887)
 12. Treaty of Shimonoseki (Treaty of Maguan 馬關條約 1895): a trade treaty signed with Japan, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. An independence and autonomy of Korea. Sovereignty of the Penghu group, Taiwan and the eastern portion of the Bay of Liaodong Peninsula together with forts, weaponry, and public property. Agreed to pay to Japan as a war indemnity the sum of 200 millions Kuping taels (about 7.45 million kg of silver). China opened Shashih, Chungking, Soochow and Hangchow to Japan. China had to grant Japan most-favored-nation status, and open various ports and rivers to Japanese trade. Russia, Germany and France asked for more money, additional 30 million-kuping silver. Total of 8,500 tons of silver given out.
13. Li-Lobanov Treaty (中俄密约 1896): a defensive alliance against Japan, pledging mutual support in case of a Japanese attack. China was not allowed to interfere with Russian troops, granted Russia decreased tariff rates.
14. Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory (展拓香港界址專條 1898): "New Territories" were leased to the United Kingdom for 99 years, expiring on 30 June 1997, and became part of the crown colony of Hong Kong.
15. Guangzhouwan Leased Territory (廣州灣租界條約 1899): the south coast of China ceded by Qing to France as a leased territory.
16. Boxer Protocol (辛丑條約 1901): After losing the Eight-Nation Alliance—Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands. 450 million taels of silver were to be paid as indemnity over 39 years to the eight nations. Under the exchange rates, 450 million taels were equal to US$ 335 million gold dollars or £67 million approximately equal to US$6.653 billion today.
The foreign powers placed Empress Cixi on their list of war criminals.
17. Simla Accord (西姆拉條約 1914): was a disputed treaty concerning the status of Tibet negotiated by representatives of China, Tibet and Britain in Simla in 1913 and 1914. The accord also defined the boundary between Tibet and China proper and between Tibet and British India.
18. Twenty-One Demands (二十一條 1915): The Twenty-One Demands were grouped into five groups:
* Group 1 confirmed Japan's recent acquisitions in Shandong Province, and expanded Japan's influence over the railways, coasts, and major cities of the province.
*Group 2 concerned Japan's South Manchuria Railway Zone. Extended the lease over the territory into the twenty-first century, and expanded Japan's influence in southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, to include rights of settlement and extraterritoriality, appointment of officials to the government, and priority for Japanese investments.
* Group 3 gave Japan control of the Hanyeping mining and metallurgy, already in debt to Japan.
* Group 4 prevented China from giving any further coastal or island concessions to foreign powers except Japan.
* Group 5 contained miscellaneous demands, ranging from Japanese advisors appointed to the Chinese central government and to administer the Chinese police force to allowing Japanese Buddhist missionary activities in China.
19. Tanggu Truce (塘沽協定 1933): was a cease-fire signed between China and Japan in Tanggu District, Tianjin on May 31, 1933, formally ending the Japanese invasion of Manchuria which had begun two years earlier. A demilitarized zone extending one hundred kilometers south of the Great Wall, extending from Beijing to Tianjin was to be created with the Great Wall itself under Japanese control. No regular Kuomintang military units were allowed in the demilitarized zone, although the Japanese were allowed to use aircraft or patrols to ensure that the agreement was maintained. Public order within the zone was to be maintained by a Demilitarized Zone Peace Preservation Corps.
***The Secret Origins of Skull & Bones: "...In 1823, Samuel Russell established Russell and Company for the purpose of acquiring opium in Turkey and smuggling it to China. Russell and Company merged with the Perkins (Boston) syndicate in 1830 and became the primary American opium smuggler. Many of the great American and European fortunes were built on the "China" (opium) trade. One of Russell and Company’s Chief of Operations in Canton was Warren Delano, Jr., grandfather of Franklin Roosevelt. Other Russell partners included John Cleve Green (who financed Princeton), Abiel Low (who financed construction of Columbia), Joseph Coolidge and the Perkins, Sturgis and Forbes families. (Coolidge’s son organized the United Fruit company, and his grandson, Archibald C. Coolidge, was a co-founder of the Council on Foreign Relations.). It all began at Yale. In 1832, General William Huntington Russell and Alphonso Taft put together a super secret society for the elite children of the Anglo-American Wall Street banking establishment. William Huntington Russell’s step-brother Samuel Russell ran "Russell & Co.", the world’s largest OPIUM smuggling operation in the world at the time. Alphonso Taft is the Grandfather of our ex-president Howard Taft, the creator of the Forerunner to the United Nations..." 
***John Quincy Adams Instructs One Drug Dealer to Help Another Collect a Debt. in his attempt to be compensated for losses ... utilized their connections in China to reap profit from the illicit opium trade.
                  Documentary: Addicted to Pleasure - Opium (BBC Documentary Series
See China was like in 1942
Opium War